Mrs. Laura Crooks Hibbard in The Philippine Presbyteriaw, October 1920. There have been multiple hundred of them, and they have been a wonderful company. Four of these heroes have completed their work; the others are scattered over all of the provinces, two are in Hawaii and some others are persevering with their research in the United States. These males are indeed “the backbone of the church buildings.” When one realizes what they are doing for the religion and character of the Philippine Islands, he feels like confessing that, though Union Theological Seminary is small in size, its affect for Christ is a minimum of as great as that of any other school. 340 THE PEOPLE OF THE PHILIPPINES young preachers who know English that they can enter into the problems of the rising generation. 306 THE PEOPLE OF THE PHILIPPINES that their careers had been being retarded, followed their countrymen into the brand new movement.

The madness and suspicion of the friars are nowhere better illustrated than in their remedy of Apolinario de la Cruz in I840-4I. He had been a lay brother of the hospital convent of San Juan de Dios in Manila, the place he conceived the concept of establishing an altar society of his personal, ascribed to St. Joseph and referred to as the “Cofradia de San Jose.” It grew to become so popular that it cut into the income of neighboring parishes and the pious founder was denounced as plotting rebellion. Several thousand persons had been by this time members of the brand new society.

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The first actual battle took place four days later at the village of San Juan del Monte close to Manila. Four leaders, including Sancho Valenzuela, have been captured and shot on the Campo de Bagumbayan . The day after the battle Don Emilio Aguinaldo, a instructor in Silan, issued a fiery proclamation, and thereafter turned the “George Washington of the revolt.” From that time till the top of Blanco’s time period as Governor-General, the Filipinos have been in a position to win many engagements and were gaining in power and numbers.

92 THE PEOPLE OF THE PHILIPPINES It was very hardly ever that the friars lived on these estates. They collected low leases from their tenants, and the estates didn’t net them more than three or 4 per cent, on a median, of the worth of the properties. But they had no interest to reckon on their funding, for the properties had been secured for nothing, and were continually rising in value. In addition to their leases, the friars obtained a franc and a half per capita out of the taxation levied by the government. They had a wealth of energy which properly may need excited the jealousy of czars and pharaohs, for they ruled within the realm of faith, economics, intellect and authorities. A prophet might have heard the rumbling of a new spirit approaching to unseat these despots from their thrones.

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They never might reach the mainland, for the fascinating cause that they have been afraid of water. When they want to shoot a fish they connect a long string to the arrows so they may pull the fish out without themselves coming involved with the stream. They built no homes, save momentary shelters of branches and leaves. They did no farming, however lived on wild forest animals, fruits and roots. They should not be referred to as Negritos, for they’d Mongoloid affinities. They did practice agriculture, they usually traded and intermarried with other individuals freely.

Not solely in the Book of Acts, and within the China Book of Martyrs, however within the Philippines as well, persecution fans the flame like a powerful wind, and aids the trigger it seeks to destroy. The gratitude of Protestants to their fanatical and ignorant oppressors should be genuine and their forgiveness complete. It ought to be acknowledged that the unsparing publicity of the traditional regime which Protestant missionaries and pastors have made was sufficient provocation to the Spanish priesthood for them to retaliate in the “4M. E. Report 1917, p. fifty five. X Presbyterian Report 1918, p. 305. “Rev. THE COMING OF AMERICAN MISSIONARIES 191 THE DISCIPLES MISSION Mr. and Mrs. W. H. Hanna and Mr. and Mrs. Hermon P. Williams began their missionary work in August, I9OI. Mr. Williams returned to America in I908 and Mr. Hanna in 1922.

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They are, indeed, in peril of changing into the church of the higher lessons. 432 THE PEOPLE OF THE PHILIPPINES has contributed generously toward the puericulture centers and towards the assist of the nurses who have been placed within the provinces under the course of the Public Welfare Commissioner. P50,ooo have been expended in I922 to furnish hospitals, clinics and schools with supplies, such as gauze, pads, flannel items, convalescent robes, and jackets. The different activities of the Red Cross are described within the chapter on Social Service. SOCIAL SERVICE 397 to extend numerically slightly more slowly, and would pour more of its energy into efforts for social and civic enchancment. Playgrounds and arranged play are wanted in each province.

In this case General McArthur produced exactly the impact he least desired. For the Filipinos didn’t want the friars to have liberty to return. They personified for the 9 Le Roy, “The Americans in the Philippines,” Vol.

The Spaniard had from 100 to a thousand or more Filipinos beneath his control, from whom he levied taxes. The tribute went to the church, the government, and the Spanish encomendero himself. Not even this substitute for slavery, however, might make the Islands worthwhile. They had proven so disappointing to exploiters and so expensive to the government that the friars had to make particular appeals to the crown on at least two events to stop their being deserted completely. But the ecclesiastics had been discovering the Philippines the most great subject from a non secular perspective that they ever had seen, and although that they had at first condemned the Spanish occupation, they were now adamant in opposition to withdrawal.

For example slightly group in Northern Palawan follow polyandry and use blow-weapons. Mr. William Allen Reed2 has made a research of the pygmies of Zambales that are mainly of class I.

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He assured the Filipino people who “Divine Providence is about to place independence inside our reach, in a fashion most respectable to a free and impartial individuals,” that America’s “constitution forbids the absorption of territory outside of America.” At the same time the Spaniards were making the strongest bid they could for the Filipinos. Three days before Aguinaldo reached the rebel camp, another Filipino had arrived, sent thither by Archbishop Nozaleda, that he would possibly provide the Filipinos autonomy, independence, anything, if they’d help the Spaniards. When he was sixteen years of age he had an unforgettable expertise of Spanish oppression. He and his father have been thrown into jail as a result of they’d not set out the variety of tobacco crops demanded by the federal government tobacco monopoly.